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LIFE CYCLE OF POTATO
Potatoes are a common addition to the home garden because they are relatively easy to grow and store. From planting to harvesting, there are four general stages to the life cycle of a potato plant.
Planting
Potato Eyes
The potato eyes
Only plant "certified seed potatoes," which are potatoes that have formed eyes. These potatoes will produce higher quality crops free from disease. Wait to plant potatoes until the ground is workable. Keep in mind that potatoes will not grow until the soil temperature reaches 45 degrees F.
Vegetative Stage
During this stage, the potato will grow on the roots and sprout leaves. Begin monitoring moisture levels; too little water will result in a smaller yield.
Growth Stage
Growth Stage
Potatoes come in a variety of shapes and colors.
Potatoes will form on the roots and eventually bulk up. At this stage, the plant will flower and produce more leaves.
Harvest
Potatoes may be harvested at different levels of maturity. Early varieties may be harvested at 70 to 90 days. Mid-season varieties may be harvested at 90 to 120 days, and late-season varieties at 120 to 140 days, according to The Gardener's Network.
PRODUCT PROFILE
(Solanum tuberosum-family Solanaceae)
On account of short duration and high yield potential ,potato is considered as a cash crop in India while the world over it is considered as the King in food staples. It is grown in 18.6 million hectares producing 328 million tonnes. India is the third largest producer of Potato's in the world after China and Russia. It is grown in about 1.4 million ha. Producing 25 million tonnes in India
Country Area In million ha. Production million tonnes Productivity Tonnes / ha.
China 4.3 70 16.3
Russia 3.1 36 11.5
India 1.4 25 17.8
Poland 0.7 14 19.3
USA 0.5 21 42.0
World 18.6 328 17.6
The other major Potato producing countries are Ukraine, Germany, Belarus, Netherlands, France, U.K, Canada, Turkey & Rumania.
In India Potato production is mostly confined to Indo- Gangetic plains. U.P. is the leading potato growing state in the country with 4.4 lakhs ha. Under cultivation and 98 lakhs tonnes of production followed by West Bengal, Bihar & Punjab. Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Assam, Karnataka & Uttaranchal are the other states growing potato in considerable area. India exports about 25,000 tonnes of Potato to Sri Lanka, Nepal, U.A.E, Mauritius etc.,
Potato is rich in carbohydrates, proteins, phosphorus, calcium, vitamin C & A. It has higher nutritive value compared to several cereals. It has high protein calorie ratio.
Nutritive Value of potato
The constituents of potato per 100 gms.
Sl.No. Constituents Weight (grams)
1 Water 74.70
2 Carbohydrates (Starch and Sugar) 22.60
3 Proteins 1.60
4 Fibre 0.40
5 Fat 0.10
6 Minerals 0.60
The Minerals and Vitamins as available in Potato is given below:
Sl.No. Minerals/Vitamin Content (mg/100gm of fresh weight)
1 Calcium 7.7
2 Copper 0.15
3 Iron 0.75
4 Magnesium 24.2
5 Phosphorus 40.3
6 Potassium 568.0
7 Sodium 6.5
8 Vitamin C 14.0 - 25.0.
9 Thiamin 0.18
10 Riboflavin 0.01-0.07
11 Niacin 0.4 - 3.1
12 Total Folate 5.0-35.0
13 Pyridoxine 0.13- 0.25
Seasons
More than 80% of potato crop is raised in Rabi season under assured irrigation from October - March. Only about 8% of area lies in hills during summer from April - October. Rainy season (Khariff) potato is grown in Karnataka , Maharashtra , H.P, J& K and Uttaranchal.
Plateau regions of southeastern, central and peninsular India constitute only 6 % of area where Potatoes are grown rain-fed during July - October. In the Nilgiri & Palani hills of Tamil Nadu the crop is grown round the year, both as irrigated and rain-fed.
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Note : The crop technical profile and practices vary from place to place depending on the soil, water and other environmental conditions. The package of practices given in this portal is only generic.